Unit 4 Reflection

Caroline Bond Day is now on Wikipedia

It was a stressful and frustrating experience to create edits of Caroline Bond Day on Wikipedia. I was looking for a female profession whose scholarly achievement was worthy to be acknowledged but was not well known and not loaded on Wikipedia. Since after I read several articles provided in the class, I recognized several critical systemic problems existing in Wikipedia. Especially the article “Meet the editors fighting racism and sexism on Wikipedia” drew my attention to discrimination on unfairness between men and women that encouraged me to produce edits for an African American female scholar. I believed that there would be many delightful but unknown professionals in the Crisis because more female professionals were on the cover pages than male professionals. In contradiction, while I was looking or reading through the magazine from January 1930 throughout March 1933, I found more male professionals’ articles and celebrated their accomplishment than female scholars.

Advertisement for introducing colleges and universities besides information of scholarships are very impressive and distinguishing from other magazines. This explains how hard African American leaders attempted to enlighten their society. When I found the name of “Caroline Bond Day” and her journal “Race-Crossing in the United States” published in March 1933 of the Crisis, I was instantly impelled by curiosity about her and her scholarly works. What and how did African American woman affect on ‘mixed race’ society? Looking up her name on Google in where I found very brief biography about and a photo of her, but found it nothing on Wikipedia.

I decided to created edits about her, started seeking information and her scholarly accomplishment that was the most difficult part of the whole process. I found two valuable sources from Diablo Valley College library: a book of “African-American Pioneer” and an article of “A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States.” To get more sources, I travelled to a public library in Concord and African-American Museum and History Library in Oakland where I found several more useful scholarly papers of Caroline Bond Day with a librarian’s help. While I was reading through all these sources for few days, I admired her idea of defining the racial types by the term of “blood-quantum.” It is normal to descript how a person mixed with more than one blood types; half-Asian and half-White. It, however, must be a sensational occurrence to meager a portion of blood, “11/16 Negro, 5/16 White,” especially having “Negro-White” families as an object of scientific study.

Heidi Ardizzone expresses what difficulties Day had to confront with collecting data of Negro-White family roots and their family photos in “Such fine families: photography and race in the work of Caroline Bond Day.” According to Heidi, the mixed race families did not want to reveal their family history because some of their families were not legally formed and because they did not know much about their own ancestors. However, Day did not stop and published her research paper “A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States” in 1932. With her research papers, she challenged the perception of inferiority of nonwhites. She attempted to eliminate racial preconception and discrimination and advocated social equality for all African Americans.

Editing for Wikipedia was a completely new type of study. Using symbolic glossaries were not familiar that caused consuming long hours and feeling frustrated. Reading introduction of Wikipedia and even watched YouTube video, but I was not able to add Caroline Bond Day’s edits for Wikipedia. The lecture, Anne Kingsley, showed me how to do in her office that helped me complete my work. After uploading edits of Caroline Bond Day’s on Wikipedia website, I looked up other scholars website; Langston Hughes and Zola Neale Hurston. Their pages have many links with other scholars and sources where marked with blue letters. I figured out how to connect Caroline Bond Day to other scholars by using a symbolic glossary “[[ ]]” and linked her with other African American scholars such as Zora Neale Hurston, W.E.B. Du Bois and Ernest Hooton on Wikipedia. The frustrating process of creating edits for Wikipedia turned into a exciting and proud work to do. I did not know much about Wikipedia, and just used it whenever I needed. This class assignment taught me new ways to learn and to participate in sharing information though Wikipedia. I hope more people will recognize Caroline Bond Day’s scholarly work.

Essay#4-Write-Up

Link to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/Caroline_Bond_Day

Caroline Stewart Bond Day (November 18, 1889 – May 5, 1948) was an American author and academic. She was one of the first African Americans to receive a degree in anthropology.[1]

Day was born in Montgomery, Alabama on November 18, 1889 and graducated with a Bachelor of Arts from Atlanta University in 1912. She became dean of women at Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas in 1920 for one year. She published various essays in the 1920s and early 1930s, including The Pink Hat, which is believed to be autobiographical.[2] She subsequently spent a number of years teaching at Howard University.[1] Day retired to Durham, North Carolina in 1939. She died on May 5, 1948 having been in poor health.[1]

Caroline Bond Day was the first African American to receive a Master’s degree in Anthropology.[3] She attended Harvard University and published her research on the sociology of African American families. Her thesis, “A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States,” published in 1932, contained sociological and anthropological information on 350 mixed-race family histories with over 400 photographs. .[4] This topic was close to Day’s own family life as she herself was of mixed race. Day was the first African American who turned her lens on her own family and social world, “Negro-White” families, in order to scientifically measure and record the hybridity of mixed race families by using the language of what she referred to as “blood-quantum” that illustrates the fraction of racial types.[5] Her research challenged the perception of inferiority of nonwhites. She attempted to eliminate racial preconception and discrimination and advocated social equality for all African Americans.,[6] .[7] Although Day’s work was not well received within contemporary scholarship in the early twentieth century and still remains controversial, her scientific research re-evaluates the accomplishments of African American women in the white male dominated field of physical anthropology and marks the first step in understanding and promoting African American biological vindication.[8]

Contents [hide]
1 Biography
2 Careers
3 See also
4 References
5 External links
Biography[edit]
Birth and Early Childhood

Caroline Bond Day was born on November 18, 1889 to Georgia and Moses Steward in Montgomery, Alabama. According to her own calculations of blood quantum, Day was a mulatto; 7/16 Negro; 1/16 Indian; and 8/16 White.[4] After her father’s death, her mother moved to Tuskegee, Alabama, where she taught at Tuskegee elementary school, and married John Percy Bond, a life insurance company executive. Day took her stepfather’s last name and had a half-sister, Wenonah Bond Logan, and a half-brother, Jack Bond.

Education and Marriage

After Day attended Tuskegee elementary school (1905) and Atlanta University High School (1908), she received a bachelor’s degree at Atlanta University in 1912, but her major and courses are unknown.[8] Day tried to obtain a graduate degree from Radcliffe College, but was initially refused when they did not accept the undergraduate course credits she earned from Atlanta University. She took additional undergraduate courses with Ernest Hooton, the only physical anthropologist within the academic department at Harvard and became the editor of her research project.[8] Following her attainment of a second Bachelor’s degree from Radcliffe, Day had various work experience: a YWCA secretary; as a social worker in relief and support services for black soldiers in New York City; an English teacher at Paul Quinn College in Waco, Texas; and the head of the English department at Prairie View College in Texas. Day married Aaron Day, “11/16 Negro, 5/16 White,” a chemistry teacher at Prairie View College, on March 1, 1920,.[8][9] After the marriage, Aaron day worked for the National Benefit Life Insurance Company where Caroline’s stepfather was employed. The family moved several times due to Aaron Day’s frequent promotions. While Day was staying in Atlanta, Georgia, she taught English and drama at Atlanta University and also published several essays and short stories from 1922 to 1927.[9]

Day’s Research

By continuing to collect data from people of mixed black and white ancestry “in her spare time” over the thirteen years,[10] Day successfully published “A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States” in 1932.[8] Her accomplishment brought her the title of the first African American anthropology at Harvard to receive a Master’s degree with first authorship for her research work.[4] Her research was a unique anthropological study that provided over 400 family photographs and morphological features and possible inheritance patterns.[8] It provides a scholarly examination of physiological, biological and sociological characteristics of race crossing.[8] It is possible that Day was influenced by W.E.B Du Bois’ sociological study of the African American as a social group. Du Bois, the editor of The Crisis, was a professor of economics and history at Atlanta University from 1896 to 1910 while Day was attending Atlanta University.[8] Du Bois supported Day’s research and corresponded with her regarding her thesis work at Radcliffe. In fact, Day utilized his family photos in her research paper.[4]

Many decades after Days’ death, she is now recognized as a pioneer physical anthropologist whose study helped future black researchers and is used to challenge scientific racism about miscegenation.[8]

Day’s Death and Archive

Day was suffering from recurrent illness, and she died from a stroke due to complications from her chronic heart condition on May 5, 1948 in North Carolina,.[10][11] Day’s archive is kept at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. Day’s archives are houses at Harvard University’s Peabody Museum. A digital edition of her thesis is available through Harvard University Library [12]

Advertisements

Revised Unit

Essay #2-Revise

Revision of Langston Hughes ~ Unfulfilled Dreams

Langston Hughes ~ Unfulfilled Dreams needs to clarify close reading and analysis of two poems; “Dreams” and “Dream Deferred.” This essay is a lack of summary and connection of scholarship in lit review, and clarity of writing and ideas. To enhance the point of view, I reread and the essay and reconsidered the connection with resources. It was not easy in the beginning of revision, but while I was following comments on my own paper, the ideas that I wanted to explain became clear and new ideas recalled in my minds. I added some more explanations to support my arguments besides eliminating overlapping sentences. It was a great experience and amused myself with revising my own work.

Langston Hughes ~ Unfulfilled Dreams

Part 1. Theme Selection

Langston Hughes’ poetry is full of references to “Dreams.” Some of these dreams carry his feelings of his African American heritage and his passion for dreaming about his African Ancestors. He looks at his ancestor’s dreams of America. For example, his grandmother’s first husband, Lewis Sheridan Leary, participated in John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 in hopes of freedom from slavery and died from his wounds (Rampersad, 3). His father, James N. Hughes, was motivated by his own dreams of freedom, escaped the enduring racism in America and became a landowner in Mexico (3). His mother, too, was a seeker, looking for better jobs and living conditions, and eventually attained what she desired in order to offered little Langston Hughes better educational opportunities (3). From all his family’s dreaming, Langston Hughes also pursued his desire for better opportunities and equal treatment for the black society in United States. However, he also learned about the reality of pursing these dreams. In some ways, Langston lived in a netherworld. While his parents were seeking their vision of the future, he was living with his grandmother in Lawrence, Kansas, where he experienced race injustice and prejudice from in his early life. Although African-American were declared “free,” their social status continually suffered under White Oppression, lack of sufficient food, unequal educational and socio-economical opportunities. Above all, enduring the brutality of racially charged violence inflicted by the White KKK was the most fearful and life threatening for African Americans in the South (Brinkman, 87). While living in this social phenomenal, dreaming of improving lives were extravagancy for the Blacks and ultimately they took a long journey to the North, the dream world.

By recording daily events occurring around him in his poems, the hopes and the dreams grew silently in young Hughes’ mind. These dreams emerge in his poetry. Most specifically, the poems “Dreams” (CP 32) and “Harlem: A Dream Deferred” (CP 426) directly depict African American Dreams. In “Dreams,” the poem emphasizes the connection between dreams and living. By having dreams or a hope for the future, one is more human because they are imagining that life could be better. However, “Dream Deferred” demonstrates his feelings of frustration about why his or other African American “Dreams” did not come true. While Langston Hughes dedicated a big portion of his life to encouraging hopefulness for Black society to improve their social status, he noticed that his “Dreams” still remained unfulfilled as African Americans were still suffering from bias and social segregation.

In Hughes’ poem, “Dreams,” the importance of holding onto dreams is represented as a metaphor for life that cannot exist without dreams. The poem starts,

Holding fast to dreams

For if dreams die

Life is a broken-winged bird (CP 32)

     This urgent voice appeals to people not to give-up on their dreams, come what may. He cries for that when the dreams dies, life is dead as well. The first stanza, “Hold fast to dreams,” shows Hughes’ desperation that actually inspires people (and motivating himself) not to give up on aspirations but “hold fast” to live. Holding onto dreams represents existing and believing in the possibility of happiness. Hughes claimed that lives without dreams are meaningless like a “broken-winged bird.” Birds with “broken-wings” means death because they never ever able to fly and they will be an easy prey for hunters. The terms “a barren field” and “frozen with snow” indicate a tomb of life, a living dead and nothingness. So Hughes’ lines put forth the idea that no matter how hard reality attempts to stop you from dreaming, the poem us not to let it execute our lives and dreams.

Unlike in Hughes’ late poem, “Dreams,” “Harlem: A Dream Deferred” (CP 426) expresses his disappointments with the idea of dreaming or hoping for a better future for African Americans. Since after holding his dreams for so many years, Hughes is asking American Society why Black Dreams continue to be just Black Dreams that hardly come true. His frustrations are present here in the poem:

What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up

Like a raisin in the sun?

Or fester like a sore-

And then run?

Does it stink like rotten meat? (CP 426)

           Hughes expressed his anxiety over delaying dreams, “What happens to a dream deferred?” and struggled to find what causes of postponement. He demonstrated the current look of the dreams of the Black, “raisin,” “fester,” and “rotten meat.” It sounds that he blamed his own people, the Black, rather than the White, for neglecting caring their own dreams.

Or crust and sugar over –

Like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags like a heavy load.

Or does it explode? Or fester like a store- (CP 426)

     The terms of “crust and sugar over” and “a syrupy sweet” indicate “white” or “White-American” and they also illustrate that the Black who were White-Americanized in the North. He made cynical remarks on their compromise with a little improvement in their lives, a little more money, and a little better living condition. Hughes demonstrated being and living as Negroes as “a heavy load” that also represents the Black who tried to forget their roots or deny their true identities. “Dream Deferred” indirectly reveals the dramatic schism within African-American Society.

Through two poems, Hughes not only enlightens his people, African Americans, but he also compels them to take responsibility for the failed fulfillment of dreams and the unification of African-American Society.

Part 2. The Thematic or Literature Review.

A number of literary scholars have examined the portrait of “dream” in the work of Langston Hughes. These discussions point to the conflict between the central dreams of African- American ideals, the utopian promise of the Harlem Renaissance and distortion of individual dreams. The society that Langston Hughes dreamed about was where he and his people could build their own culture that originated in Africa and re-affirm with equal assurance their identities.

Dreams in Hughes’ poetry are often connected to his own revolutionary position on African American racial and class equality. In his essay, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain (1926), Langston Hughes recalls one dialogue with “one of the most promising of the young Negro poets” who wants to be a poet not like a Negro poet, but like a white poet” (Hughes, 1). Thereafter, Hughes laments that this social phenomenon was happening within the new African-American middle-class. He believed that African Americans would never be able to succeed without first accepting their blackness, being acculturated into mainstream White America, and “to be as little Negro and as Much American as possible” (1). He expressed his concern and his rage against the idea of the new Negro middle-class in “Dream Deferred” in terms of “feaster” and “a rotten meat.” Similarly, David R. Jarrawya, in Montage of an Otherness Deferred: Dreaming Subjectivity in Langston Hughes, takes an example of what Langston Hughes dreamt about entire his life, “To create a Negro culture in America – a real, solid, sane, racial something growing out of the folk life, not copied from another, even though surrounding race” (Jarraway, 821). Additionally, Jarraway exemplified one incident with Alfred A. Knopf, Langston Hughes’ Publisher in the United States, as Hughes’ African American project that “Knopf could not conceal his disdain for Hughes’ refusal to conform to the aesthetic dictates of more mainstream (WASP, masculinist, middle-class) canonical figures” (820). Langston Hughes’ dream work has a great value in the image of the dreams and beloved widely. His passion of these dreams and hopes became one of the greatest embodiments of African-American literacy. Harold Bloom, in “The American Dream,” evaluates Hughes’ poems as “the very essence of his own poetic protest to obviously identify with the Black rebel-heirs to the American Dream” (43). He supports Hughes’ idea of dreams by introducing Lloyd W. Brown’s words that “if Blacks have been excluded outright from the American Dream, White Americans have also denied themselves the substance of those libertarian ideals that have been enshrined in the sacred rhetoric, and history, of the American Revolution” (37). Bloom describes Langston Hughes literary work as “revolutionary inclinations” and takes “Harlem: Dream Deferred” to express the frustrations and the rebellious query of protest against the substantiality of the American Revolution. He equalized Hughes’ dreams as the same of the White American dreams that they attained after political upheaval from overthrew the authority of Great British. However, for the Black, American Revolution was still ongoing war and Hughes’ challenge the power of the White was a different form of American Revolution. The prophetic query, “Or does it explode?” at the last stanza echoes that “legacy of revolution which, ironically, has fallen to Black Americans, precisely because the rhetoric and dreams of that other revolution have failed them” (Bloom, 42 -43).

While many scholars point to Hughes respect for African American dreams, Douglas Taylor highlights that Hughes’ “dreams-poems” also offer critique. Douglas Taylor reviews how Langston Hughes used the term of “dream” besides comparing Hughes’ “utopian perspective” with Freud’s “tragic perspective” on dreams in “dream Politics in the Poetry of Langston Hughes” (Taylor, 8). Since before Langston Hughes became the most famous African American poet, he endlessly wrote “Dreams-poems.” Douglas Taylor links Freud and Hughes’ Dream Work by using a psychic explanation “Obsession.” According to Taylor, seventy-four Langston Hughes’ poems make explicit reference to dreams out of the 879 poems in The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes (Taylor, 8). However, Taylor deconstructs the creativeness of Hughes’ work and argues that Hughes borrows the idea of dreams and social visions from “Freud’s insights into dreams while simultaneously revising them to suit the hopes and aspirations of the African American community on whose behalf he wrote” (9). To support his idea, Taylor mentions the time when Hughes interest in dreams coincides with Harlem Renaissance and with the popularization of Freudian psychoanalysis. He claims that Hughes took advantage of an opportunity to use Freud’s ideas of dreams. Taylor’s most dramatic criticisms against Hughes’ poems are that “The word ‘dream’ does not refer to dreams in the literal sense, but rather in the metaphorical sense of hope and aspirations which states clearly ‘social and utopian’ and an ‘ideal of social justice’” (9). He cites a Freudian psychoanalysis point of view to explain why Hughes’ “social and utopian” and “an ideal of social justice” can be tragic because Hughes expresses ‘subversive power of the dream’ in forms of “capitalism, imperialism, and a catastrophic global war” (9). Taylor connects Freud’s “wounded society’ to Hughes’ perception of the African American society who was emerging from a long period of racial and cultural discrimination. This society demands or needs psychological healing in order to recover from neurotic common unhappiness (9). Taylor claims that without this healing process, Hughes’ “Utopian Possibilities” for the African American society are far from reality. This might lead the wounded society to oneiric materialism that does not so much seek to negate the spirituality of dreams (11). Taylor also shows that Hughes’ dream poems also critique material of self-serving dreams because Hughes condemned people who use dreams for seeking personal gains (11).

Many scholars worked on Langston Hughes and his dreams in many different ways. Harold Bloom approaches Hughes literary works as a new form of American Revolution that challenged White American “written down” historical assumptions and cultural norms. Similarly, David R. Jarraway states that “It would be a mistake based on these interpretative refusals to construe Harlem as an empty signifier, or Hughes’s later discourse, as a linguistic counter or cultural marker dried up” (Jarraway, 826). While many scholars support Hughes’ dream vision and embrace his aspirations, some scholars express skeptical reviews about his poems based on racial views, personal aspirations, and individual desires. Among others, Douglas Taylor’s criticism against Hughes’ “wishes to utopian visions” has a very interesting point of view that Hughes’ dreams were based on the reality and Hughes just attempted to follow previous civilized society in Europe. By grafting Freud psychological theory onto Hughes “Dream Poems,” Taylor argues that Hughes’ “Oneiric materialism” does not apply to every one especially who uses dreams and seeks personal gain like the Black in the middle-class who attained their financial improvement. Hence, Hughes’ theory of dream is misunderstanding of reality and nothingness but only “utopian vision and utopian possibilities.” However, Taylor did not explain why Langston Hughes obsesses about dreams and what dreams meant to him. Despite denunciation of Langston Hughes’ poetry works from literary scholarship, no one can deny Hughes’ great efforts and powerful inspirations for African- American Dreams that sustained generations of African-Americans to reject and repel White Oppression and Suppression. Harlem was meaningful to Hughes because it was the first place where African-Americans truly unveiled flourishing artistic talents in literary work, Jazz and Blues (which originated from Africa) a dark contrast to most Blacks who lived in never-ending poverty. Black social status in America continues to be the lowest in America Society. Best of all, Hughes’ Dreams are not limited to African-Americans. Hughes’ Dreams have become the Martin Luther King Dream, the real American Dream for our multi-cultural United States, yet working progress.

Works Cited

  1. Bloom, Harold. “Bloom’s Literary Themes: The American Dream: Children’s Rhymes (Langston Hughes): The American Dream and the Legacy of Revolution in the Poetry of Langston Hughes by Lloyd W. Brown, in Studies in Black Literature (1976).” Infobase Publishing (2009): 37-46
  1. Brinkman, Bartholomew. “Movies, Modernity, and All that Jazz: Langston Hughes’ Montage of a Dream Deferred.” African American Review (2011): 85-96
  1. Hughes, Langston. “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain (1926).” Link: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/learning/essay/2378581-5
  1. Jarraway, David R. “Montage of an Otherness Deferred: Dreaming Subjectivity in Langston Hughes.” Duke University Press (1996): 819-840
  1. Rampersad, Arnold. “The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes.” Vintage Classes (1994): 3-7, 32, 426
  1. Taylor, Douglas. “Dream Politics in the Poetry of Langston Hughes”: 8-15

Part 3. Literary Resource Page

  • GradeSaver: “I, Too” summary and analysis.”

: http://www.gradesaver.com/langston-hughes-poems/study-guide/summary-i-too

This website introduce, summarize, and analyze Langston Hughes’ poems.

  • “A reading Guide to Langston Hughes”

http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/text/reading-guide-langston-hughes

This website briefly explains Langston Hughes “Dream Poems” and then presents Hughes’ thoughts about African American social problems. It summarize and analyze Hughes’ several Dream Poems

  • Dreams & A dream deferred

https://vulpeslibris.wordpress.com/2010/05/24/dreams-by-langston-hughes/

This web also summarizes and analyzes one of Langston Hughes’ poems “Dreams” and linked his “Dream Poems” with social phenomenon back that time.

  • Wei, Xu. “Use of Dreams in Hughes’s Poetry.” Xu’s scholar study expresses the value of Langston Hughes work, especially his attempt to attain African American Freedom from all oppression of the White.
  • Westover, Jeff. “Africa/America: Fragmentation and Diaspora in the Work of Langston Hughes”
  • Brinkman, Bartholomew. “Movies, Modernity, and All that Jazz: Langston Hughes’s Montage of a Dream Deferred” Brinkman expresses how African Americans were ignored by America society: even white actors played African American role. He exemplifies subtle racial, cultural discrimination and how Hughes resisted the White suppression.

Brainstorms.

  • “Dreaming” is one of the most substantial themes that Langston Hughes constantly depicts in his poems.
  • For oppressed African American, there was almost no opportunity to succeed at anything because they were not given freedom. No one can succeed without freedom or opportunity.
  • Life in Lawrence was miserable like he describes in his poems: “Aunty Sue’s Story” and “Mother to Son.”
  • Langston Hughes’ poem “Dreams” is a plea to African Americans to not surrender to White Power, to sustain African American heritage, and resist social injustice; “Hold fast to Dreams.” Hughes himself knew that it was not simple for African Americans to resist assimilating into mainstream White American Culture. This could be the hardest challenge and the most difficult thing to overcome. In reality, “Dreams” rarely come true in the real world for Black America.
  • He uses the rebellious query of protests, “What Happens to a dream deferred?” (42) He wonders where it disappeared “Does it dry up / Does it stink like rotten meat?” In the fourth stanza, “Or fester like a sore-“ might indicates the Negro middle-class who attempt to become a member of the White society by inserting their true origin; “Don’t be like niggers,” and “Look how well a white man does things.” In seventh stanza, “Or crust and sugar over – / like a syrupy sweet?” is interpretive the time of the dessert. No matter how much you desire, you have to wait for the right time. It is still the time for struggling and the time for freedom has not come yet. Hughes might comforts himself with this phrase and trusts in African American Dream once more.
  • Although these two groups have different perspectives on Langston Hughes’ “Dream Poems,” it is difficult to deny how his work inspire people, especially in the low-class in American society, to turnover the harsh realities and embrace positive minds to fulfill their dreams come true. Unfortunately, his dreaming world has not completed yet as “Liberty and Justice” have not fully effected on people equalities.
  • The ideal world that Langston Hughes dreams about, the new world in where the black can affirm as the black, in where African-American can proud their own culture without mimicking the other superior races is still progressive.
  • His people can play part of their role as the black rather than let the White play their part in movies. His dreaming world is where Afro-Americans love themselves without denying their color and without mimicking the other superior races.

Unit 4

Caroline Bond DAy

Caroline Bond Day (Courtesy of Radcliffe College Archives) (November 18, 1889 – May 5, 1948)

The life of Carline Bond Day in the early twenty-century

     Caroline Bond Day was the first African American to receive a Master’s degree in Anthropology (Ardizzone, 113). She attended Harvard University and published her research on the sociology of African American families. Her thesis, “A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States,” published in 1932, contained sociological and anthropological information on 350 mixed-race family histories with over 400 photographs (Ardizzone, 106), (Harvard University, 1/108). This topic was close to Day’s own family life as she herself was of mixed race. Day was the first African American who turned her lens on her own family and social world, “Negro-White” families, in order to scientifically measure and record the hybridity of mixed race families by using the language of what she referred to as “blood-quantum” that illustrates the fraction of racial types (Ardizzone, 107). Her research challenged the perception of inferiority of nonwhites. She attempted to eliminate racial preconception and discrimination and advocated social equality for all African Americans. (Ardizzone, 106) (Curwood). Although Day’s work was not well received within contemporary scholarship in the early twentieth century and still remains controversial, her scientific research revaluates the accomplishments of African American women in the white male dominated field of physical anthropology and marks the first step in understanding and promoting African American biological vindication (Ross, Adam, Williams, 48)

Birth and Early Childhood

     Caroline Bond Day was born on November 18, 1889 to Georgia and Moses Steward in Montgomery, Alabama. According to her own calculations of blood quantum, Day was a mulatto; 7/16 Negro; 1/16 Indian; and 8/16 White (Ardizzone, 112). After her father’s death, her mother moved to Tuskegee, Alabama, where she taught at Tuskegee elementary school, and married John Percy Bond, a life insurance company executive. Day took her stepfather’s last name and had a half-sister, Wenonah Bond Logan, and a half-brother, Jack Bond.

Education and Marriage

After Day attended Tuskegee elementary school (1905) and Atlanta University High School (1908), she received a bachelor’s degree at Atlanta University in 1912, but her major and courses are unknown (Ross, Adam, Williams, 44). Day tried to obtain a graduate degree from Radcliffe College, but was initially refused when they did not accept the undergraduate course credits she earned from Atlanta University. She took additional undergraduate courses with Ernest Hooton, the only physical anthropologist within the academic department at Harvard and became the editor of her research project (Ross, Adam, Williams, 442). Following her attainment of a second Bachelor’s degree from Radcliffe, Day had various work experience: a YWCA secretary; as a social worker in relief and support services for black soldiers in New York City; an English teacher at Paul Quinn College in Waco, Texas; and the head of the English department at Prairie View College in Texas. Day married Aaron Day, “11/16 Negro, 5/16 White,” a chemistry teacher at Prairie View College, on March 1, 1920 (Ross, Adam, Williams, 44), (Harvard University, 2/108). After the marriage, Aaron day worked for the National Benefit Life Insurance Company where Caroline’s stepfather was employed. The family moved several times due to Aaron Day’s frequent promotions. While Day was staying in Atlanta, Georgia, she taught English and drama at Atlanta University and also published several essays and short stories from 1922 to 1927 (Harvard, 2/108).

Day’s Research

By continuing to collect data from people of mixed black and white ancestry “in her spare time” over the thirteen years (Harvard, 2/108), Day successfully published “A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States” in 1932 (Ross, Adam, Williams, 44). Her accomplishment brought her the title of the first African American anthropology at Harvard to receive a Master’s degree with first authorship for her research work (Ardizzone, 113). Her research was a unique anthropological study that provided over 400 family photographs and morphological features and possible inheritance patterns (Ross, Adam, Williams, 44). It provides a scholarly examination of physiological, biological and sociological characteristics of race crossing (Ross, Adam, Williams, 44). It is possible that Day was influenced by W.E.B Du Bois’ sociological study of the African American as a social group. Du Bois, the editor of The Crisis, was a professor of economics and history at University from 1896 to 1910 while Day was attending Atlanta University (Ross, Adams, Williams, 39). Du Bois supported Day’s research and corresponded with her regarding her thesis work at Radcliffe. In fact, Day utilized his family photos in her research paper (Ardizzone, 119).

Many decades after Days’ death, she is now recognized as a pioneer physical anthropologist whose study helped future black researchers and is used to challenge scientific racism about miscegenation (Ross, Adam, Williams, 48 -49).

Day’s Death and Archive

Day was suffering from recurrent illness, and she died from a stroke due to complications from her chronic heart condition on May 5, 1948 in North Carolina (Alexander, 68), (Harvard ). Day’s archive is kept at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. Day’s archives are houses at Harvard University’s Peabody Museum. A digital edition of her thesis is available through Harvard University Library. (Hodes)

Her archive information: http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~pea00032

Peabody information: https://www.peabody.harvard.edu/node/962

Work in full: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/49232260?n=4591

External Links:

Actual Work Link (included in larger volume): http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/48607473?n=201&imagesize=1200&jp2Res=.25&printThumbnails=no

Link to Zola Neale Hurston (African American Anthropologist): ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zora_Neale_Hurston

Earnest Hooton: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earnest_Hooton

W.E.B. Du Bois: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._E._B._Du_Bois

The Crisis March 1930: Race-Crossing in the United States By Caroline Bond Day Pg. 81-82: https://books.google.com/books?d=slcEAAAAMBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

‘Such fine families’: photography and race in the work of Caroline Bond Day:

http://0-web.a.ebscohost.com.alice.dvc.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=16d382e4-31a8-46e5-9583-dd24045e50e3%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4109&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=24280712

Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZBX6MbJjRw

 

Works Cited

  1. Alexander, Adele Logan. “Day, Caroline Steward Bond.” Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, Darlene Clark Hine, ed. Brookly: Carlson. 1993
  2. Ardizzone, Heidi. “Such fine families: photography and race in the work of Caroline Bond Day.” Visual Studies, Vol.21, No.2, October 2006.
  3. Curwood, Anastasia C. “Caroline Bond Day (1889-1948): A Black Woman Outsider Within Physical Anthropology.” Transforming Anthropology. Volume 20. Issue 1. April 2012
  4. Hodes, Martha. “Black, brown and beige.” The Women’s Review of Books. Old city Publishing, Inc. 1999
  5. Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University. “Day, Caroline Bond, 1889-1948. Papers of Caroline Bond Day, bulk, 1918-1931: A finding Aid.”
  6. Ross, Hubert B, Adams, Amelia Marie, and Williams, Lynne Mallory. “African-American Pioneers in Anthropology.” The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois 1999

Unit 3 Reflection

The most fascinating parts of “their Eyes” are the time phrases where Hurston describes Janie’s growth and how she became an independent mature woman throughout her long journey; “Janie’s first dream was dead, so she became a woman,” (24) and “The young girl was gone, but a handsome woman had taken her place.” (83) Janie was not allowed to follow her only dream of a true love because her grandmother had a different perspective on women’s happiness and safety. In fact, Janie might be a victim of a generation gap between her grandmother and her two husbands, Logan and Jody. Although they loved Janie, they did not try to understand what Janie really wanted, but they just express their love in their own way; it sometimes appears as oppression, enforcement, insulting and humiliating. It is a great pity that Jody’s feeling of inferiority over Janie damaged their marriage. All after miserable relationships with Logan and Jody, Janie might feel equality and freedom during her marriage with Tea Cake. While he was not as rich as Logan and Jody, and he even beat her to prove his power over her, Janie was satisfied with him because he enthusiastically showed his love. Sharing in all joys and sorrows together in the wild muck developed their love stronger and deeper. The loss of a loved one, Tea Cake, completely filled her empty soul and ended her journey; “So much of life in its meshes! She called in her soul to come and see.” (184)U

Unit 3

alligator-b      Most-Oddly-Shaped-Lakes-on-Earth58

Images of Big Lake Okeechobee in Florida

Group PresentationPresentation – Chap. 14 ~16

Individual Write Up: 

A Journey of Love

  1. Introduction: introduce your selected section and explain the significance of this selected section or topic to the full novel thus far

Chapter 14, 15 and 16 illustrates Janie’s new destination, an uncivilized new world, in Everglades in Big Lake Okeechobee. From Janie’s point of view, everything in Everglades looks carefree and easy going. Nothing belongs to any one like the rich wild field. She was deluded by the beauty of wildness in Everglades without knowing that all creatures in Big Lake Okeechobee live on under the law of the jungle; the strong control the weak. Until chapter 13, Janie played the weak and lived under the force of the strong, grandmother, Logan, and Jody. For Janie, accepting the realities and following their demands were the only way to survive. However, living in the new world, throughout chapter 14 to 16, provided her a different opportunity to change her position in the relationship from the weak to the strong. When Tea Cake taught Janie how to control “pistol and shot gun and rifle,” (125) Janie was empowered to deal with the danger and became the strong one in the wild nature.

  1. Passage Analysis: Summarize and analyze one significant passages in your section. Contextualize and explain the location of the passage in the novel; point to particular language in the passage that is symbolic of meaningful; explain the significance of the passage

Hurston implies many conflicts that Janie would encounter in the future at the very beginning of chapter 14 as Janie approached Everglades; “To Janie’s strange eyes, everything in the everglades was ‘big and new.’ Big Lake Okechobee, big beans, big cane, big weeds, big everything……..Volunteer cane just taking the place. Dirt roads so rich and black……. ‘Wild cane’ on either side of the road hiding the rest of the world. People wild too.” (123) The terms of “big” and “new” represent overwhelming power of nature that human cannot control and unpredictable incidents would occur in the future. “Wild” signifies the embodiment of “danger” or “harm” that might devastate Janie and Tea Cake’s relationship or their lives. People in Everglades live on the benefit of nature, wild beans and wild canes, but also their lives are threatened by the power of nature, wild animals and natural disasters. In the wild world, Janie and Tea Cake were not exceptional. While Janie practiced “new” diverse experiences of dancing, music and racial groups, she also understood “new” feelings of jealousy that she never had with two previous husbands over Nunkie who lures Tea Cake. This “new” wild environment transformed Janie into a “wild” animal; “wrestle” with Tea Cake until they both satisfied. (132) A strong racism from Mrs. Turner and feelings of inferiority made Tea Cake helpless and forced him to act like a predator to hide his weakness and to show who was the boss in their relationship.

  1. Scholarly summary: Summarize and explain the scholarly article you selected and how it applies to the section or topic thus far. Point to specific ideas the author of the article presents and explain why they are significant. You can use particular quotes to help clarify and apply these ideas.

Brian R. Roberts introduces how Hurston applied African American “animal tales” and how humans and animals interact in “Their Eyes” in his article; “Predators in the ‘Glades: A Signifying Animal Tale in Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God.” “Animal Tales” is to plot stories by characterizing animals as humans. According to Roberts, in “white America’s cultural animal tale,” “the Weak” are helpless animals and white women; “the Predator” are strong animals and black men; and the Hyper-Predator played exclusively by white men, who kill the Predator to show chivalry and mercy toward the weak, distinguishing themselves as heroes of the tale.” (42) However, during chapter 14, 15 and 16, the weak is black woman, Janie, and the predator is black men, Jody and Tea Cake, and the Hyper-Predator is Mrs. Turner who tried to segregate Janie from other negroes. Barry Holstun Lopez clarifies how white Americans perceive the relationship between humans and animals and how humans transform into predators like animals in his cultural history “Of Wolves and Men.” The quote, “Man saw himself as…. Correcting what was imperfect in nature; as he became more abstracted from his natural environment, he came to regard himself as the protector of the weak animals in nature against the designs of bullies like the wolf,” (40) can explains Tea Cake’s violence over Janie very well. When Mrs. Turner bulled Tea Cake and attempted to segregate Janie from him, his position turned to “the weak” and helpless to protect his love. As the weak, Tea Cake only can show his power over Janie rather than challenging Mr. and Mrs. Turner, the Hyper-Predators.

  1. Personal response: what do you take away from your reading of Hurston’s novel? What major ideas stand out to you most and why? What do you see that is fascinating, interesting, provocative, or frustrating? Be specific.

The most fascinating parts of “their Eyes” are the time phrases where Hurston describes Janie’s growth and how she became an independent mature woman throughout her long journey; “Janie’s first dream was dead, so she became a woman,” (24) and “The young girl was gone, but a handsome woman had taken her place.” (83) Janie was not allowed to follow her only dream of a true love because her grandmother had a different perspective on women’s happiness and safety. In fact, Janie might be a victim of a generation gap between her grandmother and her two husbands, Logan and Jody. Although they loved Janie, they did not try to understand what Janie really wanted, but they just express their love in their own way; it sometimes appears as oppression, enforcement, insulting and humiliating. It is a great pity that Jody’s feeling of inferiority over Janie damaged their marriage. All after miserable relationships with Logan and Jody, Janie might feel equality and freedom during her marriage with Tea Cake. While he was not as rich as Logan and Jody, and he even beat her to prove his power over her, Janie was satisfied with him because he enthusiastically showed his love. Sharing in all joys and sorrows together in the wild muck developed their love stronger and deeper. The loss of a loved one, Tea Cake, completely filled her empty soul and ended her journey; “So much of life in its meshes! She called in her soul to come and see.” (184)

Works Cited

  1. Hurston, Zora Neale. “Their Eyes Were Watching God.” J. B. Lippincott, Inc. (1937): Chapter 14, 15, and 16
  2. Roberts, Brian R. “Predators in the ‘Glades: A Signifying Animal Tale in Zora Neal Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God. Southern Quarterly; Fall 2002; 41, 1; ProQuest pg. 39

Reflection Unit 2

  1. How and why did you select the theme that you chose to explore?

I chose the theme “Dream” because it was the only thing that I could have when I was a little girl. While my parents were working hard from early mornings to late nights, my family could not get out of the pervert. I was always worrying about our financial situation since I was young and I hesitated to tell my parents what I needed for class and what I wanted to have for my hobby. I drew everything what I wanted to buy, places where I wanted to go and then I became a dreamer. I felt a strong connection with Hughes’ poem “Dreams” once I read when I was around 10 years old. It was a great supporter ever since then.

  1. What scholarly text did you find most fascinating in your research? Why?

More than any scholarly text, “Poetry Foundation” is the most fascinating text to me. It is because Langston Hughes wrote this article where he tells what he really desired. This article provides me an idea of what Hughes was irritated and frustrated about.

  1. What do you think makes someone a good online researcher? What are the complications of researching online and how do you address those challenges?

To be a good online researcher, need to know how to connect one online source to others and a skim skill will be helpful to select right sources. It was a big challenge for me to read many sources and decided useful sources for my paper. After I printed out all the sources, I found that some of them were not useful at all, and some of them say the same points in a different way. It was also an irritating process when I could not approach to a source that I thought it would be very useful for my work.

  1. What makes your project important?

Choosing a clear theme is most important. When the theme is not clear, I waste time to search wrong sources and sometimes change the theme the end of the process.